The indiscriminate use of caffeine by people of all ages may present health hazards. The public at large needs to be more informed of the presence of caffeine in commonly consumed foods and beverages, particularly by infants, children and pregnant women. It is the responsibility of all consumers to investigate the caffeine content of suspected products so that intake may be objectively monitored. Although doubts still exist about the efficacy of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, particularly for exercise of high intensity and short duration, the IOC and the National Collegiate Athletic Association of the US have adopted bans on the use of caffeine to aid sport performance. Currently, both of these organizations prohibit the concentration of caffeine in urine to exceed 15 micrograms-ml-1. That is to say, only very large amounts of caffeine are not permitted at present. Additional research is needed to confirm or deny the contraindications presented by the ingestion of caffeine on a chronic basis.
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