Br J Sports Med 42:431-436 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2008.046565
  • Original article

Parachuting from fixed objects: descriptive study of 106 fatal events in BASE jumping 1981–2006

  1. A Westman,
  2. M Rosén,
  3. P Berggren,
  4. U Björnstig
  1. Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Division of Surgery, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
  1. Dr A Westman, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Division of Surgery, Umeå University, 90185 Umeå, Sweden; anton{at}
  • Accepted 10 March 2008
  • Published Online First 3 June 2008


Objective: To analyse the characteristics of fatal incidents in fixed object sport parachuting (building, antenna, span, earth (BASE) jumping) and create a basis for prevention.

Design: Descriptive epidemiological study.

Participants: Data on reported fatal injury events (n = 106) worldwide in 1981–2006 retrieved from the BASE fatality list.

Assessment of risk factors: Human, equipment and environmental factors.

Main outcome measurements: Identification of typical fatal incident and injury mechanisms for each of the four fixed object types of BASE jumping (building, antenna, span, earth).

Results: Human factors included parachutist free fall instability (loss of body control before parachute deployment), free fall acrobatics and deployment failure by the parachutist. Equipment factors included pilot chute malfunction and parachute malfunction. In cliff jumping (BASE object type E), parachute opening towards the object jumped was the most frequent equipment factor. Environmental factors included poor visibility, strong or turbulent winds, cold and water. The overall annual fatality risk for all object types during the year 2002 was estimated at about one fatality per 60 participants.

Conclusions: Participants in BASE jumping should target risk factors with training and technical interventions. The mechanisms described in this study should be used by rescue units to improve the management of incidents.


  • Funding: This study was funded by Umeå University, the County Council of Västerbotten and the Cederberg research grant.

  • Competing interests: None.

  • Ethics approval: Local ethics committee approval was obtained.

  • Patient consent: Informed consent was obtained for publication of all photos.

Free sample

This 2015 issue is free to all users to allow everyone the opportunity to see the full scope and typical content of BJSM.
View free sample issue >>

Email alerts

Don't forget to sign up for content alerts so you keep up to date with all the articles as they are published.

Navigate This Article