Knowledge transfer principles as applied to sport concussion education
- 1Cancer Care Ontario, Ontario, Canada
- 2Sport Concussion Clinic, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- 3Department of Neurosurgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
- Karen M Johnston, Sport Concussion Program, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, 550 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2A2, Canada;
- Accepted 30 January 2009
Objective: To (a) examine knowledge transfer literature and optimal learning needs as applied to healthcare professionals, coaches and student athletes; (b) apply the practice of knowledge transfer to sport concussion education resources; and (c) identify needs and make recommendations for optimising concussion education.
Design: Qualitative literature review of knowledge transfer and concussion education literature.
Intervention: Pubmed, Medline, Psych Info and Sport Discus databases were reviewed. 52 journal articles, 20 websites and 2 books were reviewed.
Results: The methods in which individuals experience optimal learning varies and should be considered when developing effective concussion education strategies. Physician knowledge and performance are impacted by education outreach, interaction and reminder messages. Educational strategies associated with optimal learning for physio and athletic therapists include problem and evidence-based practice, socialisation and peer-assisted learning. From a coaching perspective, research supports the reflective process as a learning modality. Student athletes have strengths and weaknesses in different areas and so perform differently on activities requiring distinct strategies. Knowing the impact of sport concussion resources on knowledge enhancement and modifying attitudes and behaviours toward concussion requires evaluation strategies. Review of concussion resources using the perspective of knowledge transfer and methods for improvement is discussed.
Conclusions: Knowledge transfer is a relatively new concept in sports medicine and its influence on enhancing concussion education is not well known. The needs and optimal learning styles of target audiences coupled with evaluation need to be a piece of the overall concussion education puzzle to effectively impact knowledge of and attitudes and behaviours towards sport concussion.
Competing interests: None.