Background Hypermobility is associated with increased risk of sporting injuries. This study was performed to assess the risk of recurrent shoulder dislocations in patients with hypermobility.
Methods Prospective data was collected for 38 patients with primary shoulder dislocations between October 2008 and July 2009 including demographic details, contact sport played, hypermobility, family history of laxity and Benign Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (BJHS). Electronic records from emergency and orthopaedic departments were checked in January 2013 to confirm recurrent shoulder dislocation. Beighton score of 6 or above was used for hypermobility. Brighton criteria were used to diagnose BJHS.
Results The mean age was 25 years (range 15–55). There were 35 males and 3 females. twenty-two patients (58%) were involved in contact sports and most common sport played was rugby in twelve patients (55%). The mean Beighton score for these patients was 3.6 (range 0–9). Ten patients (26%) in this group had a Beighton score of 6 or more indicating hypermobility (Group A). twenty-eight patients (74%) had Beighton score less than 6 (Group B).
The mean age for Group A (10 patients) was 26 years (range 15–55). There were 9 males and 1 female. Five patients were involved in contact sports. Six patients (60%) in this group had a recurrent shoulder dislocation. The mean Beighton score for these patients was 7.4 (range 6–9). Three patients (30%) had BJHS and six patients (60%) had a family history of laxity.
The mean age for Group B (28 patients) was 25 years (range 15–44). There were 26 males and 2 females. Eleven patients (39%) were involved in contact sports. The mean Beighton score for these patients was 2 (range 0–5). One patient (3%) had BJHS and three patients (11%) had a family history of laxity. Eleven patients (39%) in this group had a recurrent shoulder dislocation.
Discussion/Conclusion Hypermobile patients had a higher incidence of recurrent shoulder dislocations (60% vs 39%). 30% patients fulfilled the Brighton criteria for BJHS and 60% had a family history of laxity. These factors should be assessed in patients after primary shoulder dislocation to decide appropriate rehabilitation and treatment plan to prevent recurrence.