The effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on serum total 25[OH]D concentration and physical performance: a randomised dose–response study
- Graeme L Close1,
- Jill Leckey1,
- Marcelle Patterson1,
- Warren Bradley1,
- Daniel J Owens1,
- William D Fraser2,
- James P Morton1
- 1Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
- 2Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK
- Correspondence to Dr Graeme L Close, Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Tom Reilly Building, Byrom St Campus, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK;
- Received 4 September 2012
- Revised 10 January 2013
- Accepted 17 January 2013
- Published Online First 14 February 2013
Background Vitamin D deficiency is common in the general public and athletic populations and may impair skeletal muscle function. We therefore assessed the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on serum 25[OH]D concentrations and physical performance.
Methods 30 club-level athletes were block randomised (using baseline 25[OH]D concentrations) into one of three groups receiving either a placebo (PLB), 20 000 or 40 000 IU/week oral vitamin D3 for 12 weeks. Serum 25[OH]D and muscle function (1-RM bench press and leg press and vertical jump height) were measured presupplementation, 6 and 12 weeks postsupplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined in accordance with the US Institute of Medicine guideline (<50 nmol/l).
Results 57% of the subject population were vitamin D deficient at baseline (mean±SD value 51±24 nmol/l). Following 6 and 12 weeks supplementation with 20 000 IU (79±14 and 85±10 nmol/l, respectively) or 40 000 IU vitamin D3 (98±14 and 91±24 nmol/l, respectively), serum vitamin D concentrations increased in all participants, with every individual achieving concentrations greater than 50 nmol/l. In contrast, vitamin D concentration in the PLB group decreased at 6 and 12 weeks (37±18 and 41±22 nmol/l, respectively). Increasing serum 25[OH]D had no significant effect on any physical performance parameter (p>0.05).
Conclusions Both 20 000 and 40 000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation over a 6-week period elevates serum 25[OH]D concentrations above 50 nmol/l, but neither dose given for 12 weeks improved our chosen measures of physical performance.