Risk factors for groin/hip injuries in field-based sports: a systematic review
- 1Department of Physiotherapy, University Hospital Galway, Galway, Ireland
- 2Department of Clinical Therapies, Faculty of Education and Health Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
- Correspondence to Julianne Ryan, Department of Clinical Therapies, Faculty of Education and Health Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland;
- Received 2 October 2013
- Revised 11 April 2014
- Accepted 14 April 2014
- Published Online First 2 May 2014
Background Groin/hip injuries are common in the athletic population, particularly in sports requiring kicking, twisting, turning and rapid acceleration and deceleration. Chronic hip, buttock and groin pain account for 10% of all attendances to sports medicine centres. Understanding risk factors for field-based sports (FBS) players is important in developing preventive measures for injury.
Objective This systematic review aims to identify and examine the evidence for groin/hip injury risk factors in FBS.
Methods 14 electronic databases were searched using keywords. Studies were included if they met the inclusion criteria and investigated one or more risk factors with relation to the incidence of groin/hip injuries in FBS. Studies were accumulated and independently analysed by two reviewers under a 12-point quality assessment scale (modified CASP (for cohort study design) assessment scale). Owing to the heterogeneity of studies and measures used, a meta-analysis could not be conducted. As a result risk factors were pooled for analysis and discussion.
Results Of the 5842 potentially relevant studies, 7 high-quality studies were included in this review. Results demonstrated that previous groin/hip injury was the most prominent risk factor, identified across four studies (OR range from 2.6 (95% CI 1.1 to 6.11) to 7.3, (p=0.001)), followed by older age (OR 0.9, p=0.05) and weak adductor muscles (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.31 to 14.0, p=0.02) each identified in two studies. Eight other significant risk factors were identified once across the included studies.
Conclusions 11 significant risk factors for groin/hip injury for FBS players were identified. The most prominent risk factor identified was previous groin/hip injury. Future research should include a prospective study of a group of FBS players to confirm a relationship between the risk factors identified and development of groin/hip injuries.