Background Studies examining risk factors for sport injury in elementary school children are few. The risk of sport injury in special populations including Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has not been previously examined.
Objective To examine risk factors for sport injury in elementary school students (ages 9–12), including special populations (DCD and ADHD).
Design Cross-sectional study.
Setting A survey was sent home with students in 26 randomly selected Calgary (Canada) elementary schools.
Participants Children ages 9–12 years (n=540).
Risk factor assessment The primary risk factors of interest were probable DCD (pDCD) and ADHD. Other risk factors considered included age, sex, ethnicity, highest level of parent education, stressful life events (previous year), receiving coaching in at least 1 sport, and body mass index.
Main outcome measurements Injury definitions included any sport injury in the previous year and sport injury in the previous year requiring medical attention.
Results Based on univariate Poisson regression (adjusted for exposure hours and cluster) the risk of all sport injury in the previous year in typically developing children did not differ from children with either pDCD (n=150, Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR=1.02 [95% CI 0.7–1.5]) or ADHD (n=87, IRR=0.94 [95% CI 0.58–1.55]). Children with ADHD were at a greater risk of sport injury requiring medical attention compared to those without ADHD (IRR: 1.82 [95% CI 1.23–2.68]). No other risk factors were identified based on univariate analysis.
Conclusions Children (9–12 years) with pDCD and ADHD were at a similar risk of sport injury in the previous year as typically developing children. Children with ADHD were at an 82% greater risk of sport injury requiring medical attention than children without the disorder. This study will inform the development of injury prevention strategies for future studies in elementary school targeting children with ADHD.
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