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Ultrasonography of fractures in sports medicine
  1. Douglas F Hoffman1,
  2. Erik Adams2,
  3. Stefano Bianchi3
  1. 1Department of Orthopedics and Radiology, Essentia Health, Duluth, Minnesota, USA
  2. 2Midwest Sports Medicine Institute, Middleton, Wisconsin, USA
  3. 3CIM SA, Cabinet Imagerie Médicale, Genève, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to Dr Douglas F Hoffman, Department of Orthopedics and Radiology, Essentia Health, 400 E. Third Street, Duluth, MN 55805, USA; douglas.hoffman{at}essentiahealth.org

Abstract

High-resolution ultrasound is emerging as an important imaging modality in fracture assessment due to its availability, ease of use and multiplanar capabilities. Its usefulness includes injury assessment for the presence of a fracture when obtaining radiographs is not immediately available, detecting occult fractures not revealed on radiographs, and diagnosing bone stress injury before radiographic changes. Sonographic evaluation of bone, however, has limitations and should always be coupled with radiographs and possibly advanced imaging modalities such as CT and MR when clinically indicated.

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