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Physical activity and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies
  1. Ajibola Ibraheem Abioye1,
  2. Majeed Olaniyi Odesanya2,
  3. Asanat Iyabode Abioye3,
  4. Nasiru Akanmu Ibrahim4
  1. 1Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  2. 2Newgate Medical Services Limited, Ikorodu, Lagos, Nigeria
  3. 3Community Health Unit, Lagos State General Hospital, Igando, Lagos, Nigeria
  4. 4Department of Surgery, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria
  1. Correspondence to Dr Nasiru Akanmu Ibrahim, Department of Surgery, Lagos State University College of Medicine, 1-5 Oba Akinjobi Way, PMB 21266, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria; ibrahimakanmu{at}yahoo.com

Abstract

Background Studies evaluating the relationship of physical activity and stomach cancer risk have yielded inconsistent and largely inconclusive results. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that assessed the relationship between physical activity and risk of gastric cancer.

Methods Following a standard protocol, we searched medical literature databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Google Scholar) from inception to July 2012, and conducted a random effects meta-analysis.

Results Seven prospective cohorts and four case–control studies of physical activity and gastric cancer risk, with 1 535 006 people and 7944 cases of gastric cancer were included. We found a modest protective association between sufficient physical activity and gastric cancer risk (relative risk: 0.81 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.96); I2=68.5%) in the prospective studies and (relative risk: 0.78 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.91); I2=0%) in case–control studies. The association appeared weaker in smokers than in non-smokers (p heterogeneity=0.035). The association may also be weaker for gastric cardia cancer relative to the distal non-cardia subtypes. Physical activity type (recreational or occupational), intake of alcohol, total energy intake, consumption of fruits and vegetables and infection with Helicobacter pylori had no influence on the association. The effect measure from cohort studies (relative risk: 0.82 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.97); I2=61.7%) and case–control studies (relative risk: 0.83 (95% CI 0.66 to 1.04); I2=49.8%) did not differ materially at higher physical activity levels.

Conclusions We conclude that a regular physical activity may be protective against stomach cancer risk.

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