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A review of the specificity of exercises designed for conditioning the lumbar extensors
  1. James Steele1,2,
  2. Stewart Bruce-Low2,
  3. Dave Smith3
  1. 1Human Performance Laboratory, British College of Osteopathic Medicine, Hampstead, London, UK
  2. 2Centre for Health, Exercise and Sport Science, Southampton Solent University, Southampton, Hampshire, UK
  3. 3Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
  1. Correspondence to James Steele, Human Performance Laboratory, British College of Osteopathic Medicine, Lief House, 120-122 Finchley Road, Hampstead, London NW3 5HR, UK; jsteele{at}bcom.ac.uk

Abstract

Objective To review the specificity of exercises designed to condition the lumbar extensor musculature (ie, lumbar erector spinae and multifidus).

Methods A review of studies examining effects of exercises designed to condition the lumbar extensors was conducted. Included were studies that examined the acute activation and chronic adaptation of the lumbar extensor musculature in response to benches and roman chair trunk extensions, free weights exercises (ie, deadlifts, squats, good-mornings, etc), floor and stability ball exercise (ie, trunk extensions, bridging, four-point kneeling, etc) and resistance machines (ie, those with and without pelvic restraints).

Results Evidence suggests that the reviewed exercises designed to condition the lumbar extensors all may result in significant activation of this musculature during their performance. However, examination of training studies shows that for benches and roman chair trunk extensions, free weights exercises, floor and stability ball exercise and resistance machines without appropriate pelvic restraints, evidence suggests that they may be less effective for inducing chronic adaptations in the lumbar extensors as a result of their performance. Contrastingly, resistance machines that employ appropriate pelvic restraint to isolate lumbar extension are better evidenced to confer specific adaptations to the lumbar extensors.

Conclusions Numerous exercise approaches have been designed with the intention of conditioning the lumbar extensors. Those examined appear to activate the lumbar extensors; however, the specificity of many of these exercises for producing chronic adaptations may be questionable, potentially due to the compound nature of them allowing involvement of other musculature such as the hip extensors. Many of the reviewed exercises offer potential to condition the lumbar extensors, however, isolation of lumbar extension through appropriate pelvic restraint appears important for optimising specific adaptations in the lumbar extensors.

  • Back injuries
  • Sporting injuries
  • Physiotherapy
  • Exercise
  • Injury Prevention

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