Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms with resting, maximal and recovery blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular hypertrophy measured by left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in elite athletes.
Methods A group of 107 white, healthy, elite male athletes, aged between 20 and 35 yr, enrolled in this study. All of them participated either in sprint/power sports (n = 17), endurance (n = 36) or in mixed sports (n = 54). HRM method has been developed to differentiate between variant alleles of ACE and ACTN3 genes (Figures 1 and 2).
Results No significant difference was found in the ACE and ACTN3 genotypes or allele frequencies distribution between sprint/power, endurance or mixed sports athletes (p > 0.05). Also, neither insertion in the ACE gene, nor nonsense mutation in the the ACTN3 gene had a significant effect on resting and maximal BP. Sport activity, but not the analysed polymorphisms influence resting diastolic, maximal systolic and recovery systolic BP (p < 0.05). According to ACE dominant model the two-way ANOVA indicated a significant relation between the genotype (II+ID vs. DD) and the type of sport in systolic BP recovery (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03, respectively), but not the significance of its interaction (p > 0.05). In relation to maximal BP, decrease in systolic BP at 3 min of recovery was higher in ACE II/ID group compared to ACE DD in all sport groups (endurance, sprint/power and mixed: 78 vs. 86%, 79 vs. 83%, 67 vs. 78%, respectively, p < 0.05). In contrast, the two-way ANOVA indicated a significant interaction between the ACE genotype (II+ID vs. DD) and the type of sport in LVMI (p = 0.02). LVMI was significantly higher in ACE II/ID group compared to ACE DD in all sport groups (endurance, sprint/power and mixed: 107.5 vs. 104.3 g/m2; 104.6 vs. 103.6 g/m2; 113.7 vs. 89.72 g/m2, p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the ACTN3 genotypes or allele frequencies distribution between the three groups as regards resting, maximal and recovery BP and LVMI (p > 0.05).
Conclusion These data show that LVMI as a marker of LVH depends significantly on the interaction between ACE polymorphism and the type of sport activity.
Gunel T, Gumusoglu E, Hosseini MK, Yilmazyildirim E, Dolekcap I, Aydinli K. Effect of angiotensin I-converting enzyme and α-actinin 3 gene polymorphisms on sport performance. Mol Med Rep 2014 Apr;9(4):1422–6.
Ma F, Yang Y, Li X, Zhou F, Gao C, Li M, Gao L. The association of sport performance with ACE and ACTN3 genetic polymorphisms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2013;8(1):e54685.
Saber-Ayad MM, Nassar YS, Latif IA. Angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D gene polymorphism affects early cardiac response to professional training in young footballers. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2014;15(3):236–42.
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