Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the association of ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms with resting, maximal and recovery blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular hypertrophy measured by left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in elite athletes.
Methods A group of 107 white, healthy, elite male athletes, aged between 20 and 35 yr, enrolled in this study. All of them participated either in sprint/power sports (n = 17), endurance (n = 36) or in mixed sports (n = 54). HRM method has been developed to differentiate between variant alleles of ACE and ACTN3 genes (Figures 1 and 2).
Results No significant difference was found in the ACE and ACTN3 genotypes or allele frequencies distribution between sprint/power, endurance or mixed sports athletes (p > 0.05). Also, neither insertion in the ACE gene, nor nonsense mutation in the the ACTN3 gene had a significant effect on resting and maximal BP. Sport activity, but not the analysed polymorphisms influence resting diastolic, maximal systolic and recovery systolic BP (p < 0.05). According to ACE dominant model the two-way ANOVA indicated a significant relation between the genotype (II+ID vs. DD) and the type of sport in systolic BP recovery (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03, respectively), but not the significance of its interaction (p > 0.05). In relation to maximal BP, decrease in systolic BP at 3 min of recovery was higher in ACE II/ID group compared to ACE DD in all sport groups (endurance, sprint/power and mixed: 78 vs. 86%, 79 vs. 83%, 67 vs. 78%, respectively, p < 0.05). In contrast, the two-way ANOVA indicated a significant interaction between the ACE genotype (II+ID vs. DD) and the type of sport in LVMI (p = 0.02). LVMI was significantly higher in ACE II/ID group compared to ACE DD in all sport groups (endurance, sprint/power and mixed: 107.5 vs. 104.3 g/m2; 104.6 vs. 103.6 g/m2; 113.7 vs. 89.72 g/m2, p < 0.05). No significant difference was found in the ACTN3 genotypes or allele frequencies distribution between the three groups as regards resting, maximal and recovery BP and LVMI (p > 0.05).
Conclusion These data show that LVMI as a marker of LVH depends significantly on the interaction between ACE polymorphism and the type of sport activity.
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Saber-Ayad MM, Nassar YS, Latif IA. Angiotensin-converting enzyme I/D gene polymorphism affects early cardiac response to professional training in young footballers. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 2014;15(3):236–42.
- elite athletes
- gene polymorphisms
- physical performance
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