For each individual must be appropriate life style modelling of the respiratory system functionality as well necessity for physical activity, training program, especially for amateur and professional athletes. The influence of variable factors gives implications to the amateur athletes’ body and respiratory system- health condition, supplements or necessary treatment, physical working capacity of the body, physical activity with increased function of respiratory system, cardiopulmonary interdependence, hydration, fitness level, physical abilities, training or competition period, training process and ambience. High level functionality of respiratory system decreases risk of potential interaction with physical load connected diseases. To better assess functionality of respiratory system in amateur sports there is an importance of sports doctors or coaches advices to adjust suitable training programs.
Objective To assess the influence of training program intensity on the functionality of respiratory system using cardiopulmonary exercise testing for adult amateur athletes.
Methods The research was established in Sports laboratory, Ltd. 1100 adult amateur athletes (68%, n-750men), who does high dynamic load kind of sports, such as rowing, swimming, cycling, running and sports games, aged 25-50 years, underwent maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing on ISO certified Master screen CPX system with breath by breath gas exchange and flow/volume measurements analysis during the rest, different phases of the physical load, including maximal load and recovery. Amateurs were divided in groups: 1.group (n-375men) and 3.group (n-150 women) with training program of professionals 300-600 load min/week (>10 years); 2.group (n-375men) and 4.group (n-200women) with training program of amateurs 90-240 load min/week (>5 years). Estimated indices (compared with calculated age, gender, height and weight dependent predicted values(PV)): breathing rhythm, breathing frequency(ƒ), ventilation(VE), inspiration(VTin), expiration(VTex), oxygen uptake(VO2), ventilatory oxygen and carbon dioxide coefficients(VE/VO2; VE/VCO2). Standard descriptive statistical analyses were conducted (SPSS version22.0 software (IBM SPSS,Corp.,Armonk,NY)).
Results During the physical load arrhythmic and forced breathing was registered 46% men and 53% women amateur athletes. 1.group men reached 15.3%, 3.group women 28.5% higher maximal load, than 2. and 4.groups athletes (p < 0.001).
Flow/volume measurements: ƒ,max were rare than PV for all four groups: 1.group-7%; 2.group-14.3%; 3.group-11.9%; 4.group-19% (p < 0.001). Reached VE,max were 113 ± 22 L/min for 1.group; 2.group-103 ± 20 L/min; 3.group-77 ± 17 L/min; 4.group-67 ± 15 L/min (p < 0.001).
The functional gas exchange measurements: VO2max were higher than PV for 1.group-10.7%, reached 41.23 ± 8.13 mL/min/kg; 2.group-32.3%, reached 34.00 ± 7.09 mL/min/kg; 3.group-19.9%, reached 35.71 ± 6.89 mL/min/kg (p < 0.001), but 4.group without difference with PV, reached 28.71 ± 5.82 mL/min/kg. Athletes with training program of professionals have 3-4% lower VE/VO2max and VE/VCO2max than athletes with training program of amateurs (p < 0.003).
Conclusion The estimation of respiratory system values shows statistical differences between research groups in all testing phases. The intensity of training program gives significant influence to respiratory system functionality (ƒ, VE, VO2). Independently of training program intensity inspiration, expiration volumes were in similar values. Metabolic equivalent was lower than PV in all groups, except men amateur athletes with training program of professionals, and it marks significant point of view to this measurement, because of other indices were exceeded. The authors of research continue to determine the value of PV for amateur athletes.