Nutritional status is the condition of the body as a result of the food intake, absorption and the ability of body to maintain normal metabolic homeostasis. Creatinine is determined by the muscular mass, because it is non-enzymatically derived from creatinine, which is structural component of muscles. Previous studies showed that serum creatinine concentration correlate with body mass index (BMI) in both general and athletic population and proposed that the specific reference ranges should be used in athletes. In the similar manner, aminotransferases are released by activated muscles and could increase after physical exercise. Strong correlation with aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) with BMI was found in general population, but the data for athletes are still lacking. In addition, the percentage of Body Fat (%BF) has been shown to be more reliable indicator of nutritional status in athletes. The aim of this research was to examine the relationship of anthropometric parameters, BMI and the% BF, with the serum concentration of AST and ALT in male and female athletes (basketball players), and to assess if there are gender specific differences in the level of aminotransferases.
The 84 male (22 ± 2 years) and 72 female basketball players (20 ± 2 years) were examined. All subjects had been practiced sports actively for minimum 5 years, at least 15 hours per week. Measured anthropometrical parameters and liver metabolic parameters were: body height (BH), body mass (BM), BMI,%BF (assessed by bioimpedance) and serum concentrations of AST and ALT after at least 12h of fasting and 24h without high intensity physical activity.
The BMI was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in male group compared to female one. However, females had significantly higher percentage of the body fat (p < 0.01) in comparison with males. AST and ALT, were significantly higher in male athletes (p < 0.01) (Table 1). Strong positive correlation between BMI and%BF was observed in both groups. In male athletes, correlation was not found between BMI and AST and ALT, and%BF and AST and ALT. In female athletes a strong negative correlation was found between BMI and AST and ALT; and%BF and AST (Figure 1a) and ALT (Figure 1b).
Our study has showed that BMI and%BF do not correlate with AST and ASL in male athletes, while they strongly correlate in female athletes, therewith%BF correlate better with AST and ALT. As the correlation of BMI and%BF with ALT and AST was linear, future investigation are needed to explain the cause of the close relationship between%BF, AST and ALT obtained in the group of female athletes.
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