The successful sports achievements requires athletes high physical working capacity (PWC),what is based on normal physical and psychological child development, adequate training program and healthy physiological cardiovascular adaptation in the adolescent period. The adolescents, who have training program of professional athletes, perform significant volumes of training load, which leave severe stress on their body, could causes overload syndrome or pathological changes. Trainings and competitions load demands from adolescent athletes’ high physical working capacity, adequate neural, cardiac and respiratory physiological, morphological and functional adaptation.
To assess the influence of training program intensity on cardiorespiratory adaptation for adolescent athletes.
The research was established in Sports laboratory, Ltd. 500 adolescent athletes (60%, n-300boys), who does high dynamic load kind of sports: basketball, soccer, hockey, running, teniss, cycling, c.c.skiing, rowing and swimming, average age 15 years, underwent maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing on ISO certified Master screen CPX system during the rest, aerobic(AE) and anaerobic(AN) thresholds, maximal load(MAX) and recovery(REC). Adolescent athletes were divided in groups: 1.group (n-200 boys, average BMI-21.0 ± 2.4) and 3.group (n-100 girls, average BMI-21.8 ± 2.7) professionals who started to do sports in 8 ± 3 years age, 99% regular training program, 98% coach guidance, 7.0-14.0 exercise hours/week; 2.group (n-100 boys, average BMI-21.8 ± 3.4) and 4.group (n-100 girls, average BMI-20.9 ± 2.6) amateurs who started to do sports in 9 ± 3 years age, 80% regular training program, 95% coach guidance, 3.0-4.5exercise hours/week.
Indices estimated and compared in different phases: reached absolute and relative load, heart rate(HR), stroke volume(SV), cardiac output(Qt), ventilation(VE) and oxygen uptake(VO2) and recovery. Standard descriptive statistical analyses were conducted (SPSS version22.0 software (IBM SPSS,Corp.,Armonk,NY)).
Adolescent professional athletes’ girls and boys had statistically significant lower HR, higher SV during the rest. During the AE, AN thresholds and MAX relative load HR values were not with significant difference between amateur and professional groups, only in absolute load reaches statistically significant difference(p < 0,05).
1.group boys AE reached 20% higher absolute load than
2.group, SV-114[84;136]ml/beats, Qt-15.49 [10.78;18.59]L/min, VE-42[33;56]L/min; VO2-24.81 ± 6.31 ml/min/kg (p < 0.05); AN reached 23% higher absolute load, SV-108[80;131]ml/beats, Qt-18.55 ± 5.24 L/min, VE-75[58;95]L/min; VO2-39.90 ± 7.56 ml/min/kg (p < 0.05); MAX reached 20% higher absolute load, SV-109[80;132]ml/beats, Qt-20.03 [14.71;24.16]L/min, VE-99[76;118]L/min; VO2-45.74 ± 7.35 ml/min/kg (p < 0.05).
3.group girls AE reached 13% higher absolute load than 4.group, SV-86 ± 20 ml/beats, Qt-11.82 ± 3.02 L/min, VE-36 ± 10 L/min; VO2-20.92 ± 6.80 ml/min/kg (p < 0.05); AN reached 12% higher absolute load, SV-84 ± 19 ml/beats, Qt-14,48 ± 3,48 L/min, VE-61.93 ± 18.27 L/min; VO2-32.69 ± 7.39 ml/min/kg (p < 0.05); MAX reached 9% higher absolute load, SV-84 ± 20 ml/beats, Qt-15.50 ± 3.56 L/min, VE-77 ± 18 L/min; VO2-37.70 ± 6.07 ml/min/kg (p < 0.05).
The adequate recovery were found 1.group-14.5%(n-29), 2.group-11%(n-11), 3.group-14%(n-14), 4.group-5%(n-5). The functional adaptation to the physical load were found only 1.group-12%(n-24), 2.group-14%(n-14), 3.group-12%(n-12),
Each sports performance requires adequate physiological responses of the body. Training program intensity gives statistically significant influence on physical working capacity and cardiorespiratory adaptation between research groups. The cardiorespiratory adaptation for professional adolescent athletes is not significantly higher because of too intense training regime and following overtraining. Therefore during the sports activities of adolescents a coach should take into a consideration individual features and abilities. Then the planning of training regime will be with additional value for adolescent future, makes better adaptation to the given training regime and refuse overload.
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