Introduction Selection in individual sports is conditioned by certain morphological characteristics. In basketball are selected individuals who tallest in his class (age group). Water polo is a sport that is characterised by high aerobic endurance. The differences in anthropomorphic parameters among young athletes could be influenced by the biological development itself or they could appear under the impact of the training stimulus that is characteristic for a certain type of sport.
Aim The aim of this study was to show the differences in anthropomorphic parameters, absolute oxygen consumption (VO2) and relative oxygen consumption (VO2/kg) between senior national water polo and basketball selection.
Methods The research includes 32 selected professional players, members of national team, divided in two groups: water polo (W)(n1 = 15, aged 26.62 ± 4.24 years), basketball (B)(n2 = 17, aged 23.84 ± 1.96 years). The research was conducted in the laboratory for functional diagnostic Serbian Institute of Sport and Sports Medicine. Subject underwent physical exam, maximal progressive ergospirometry test on a Treadmill T200 Cosmed (methods Breath by breath, Quark CPET, Cosmed Pulmonary Function Equipment (VO2max, VO2 max/kg)) was used in order to complete the examinations of the cardio - respiratory system. In total, 23 measurements were performed, per every single player, within the anthropomorphic examinations (Mateigka, Jackson/Pollock, Durnin/Womersley). Student’s T-test was used for comparison of measured parameters.
Results The comparison of measured parameters between water polo and basketball players showed that the water polo players have the high statistically significant bigger BMI (W 27.15 ± 1.53 vs. B 25.03 ± 1.61kg/m2), chest circumference (W 112.07 ± 5.88 vs. B 104.41 ± 6.2 cm), forearm circumference (W 30.77 ± 0.98 vs. B 29.41 ± 1.34 cm)(p < 0.01 for all) and statistically significant bigger upper arm circumference (W 35.33 ± 1.53 cm vs. B 33.68 ± 1.85 cm)(p < 0.05). Basketball player highly statistically significant higher (W 192.7 ± 3.76 vs. B 200.65 ± 6.55 cm)(p < 0.01), have statistically significant bigger thigh circumference (W 61.47 ± 1.90 vs. B 63.73 ± 3.36 cm), upper arm skin fold (W 7.23 ± 2.01 vs. B 9.2 ± 2.92 mm), abdominal skin fold (W 13.1 ± 4.48 vs. B 17.59 ± 6.44 mm),% of body fat (Mateigka) (W 13.47 ± 2.35 vs. B 16.75 ± 4.24%)(p < 0.05 for all) and have high statistically bigger thigh skin fold (W 10.33 ± 1.85 vs. B 13.97 ± 4.11 mm),% of bone (Mateigka) (W 14.15 ± 1.10 vs. B 15.1 ± 0.74%), VO2 (W 3874.69 ± 382.75 vs. B 4916.82 ± 402.26 ml/min), VO2/kg (W 39.11 ± 4.64 vs. B 49.05 ± 3.85 ml/min/kg)(p < 0.01 for all).
Conclusion This study confirms the hypothesis that long-term engagement in sports activity leads to some morphological changes in athletes. Basketball players have highly statistically significantly bigger absolute and relative oxygen consumption then water polo. Basketball players are highly statistically significantly taller, have a highly statistically bigger thigh skin fold, bone percentage (Mateigki) and have a statistically bigger triceps and abdominal skin fold, percentage of fat (Mateigki), while water polo players have highly statistically higher BMI, chest circumference, forearm circumference. A large number of studies which were carried out research on the effect of training on morphofunctional characteristics of young people confirms that reaction of cardiorespiratory system of young athletes during training depends on the type of sports, years of practice sports, body position during sports activities and the medium in which these activities are performed.
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