Background Psychophysiological stress markers across concussion recovery milestones have not been examined in an integrated study.
Objective To examine physiological (heart rate variability [HRV] and salivary cortisol) and psychological (mood, perceived stress, symptoms, and sleep quality) factors of stress in concussed athletes across clinical recovery milestones.
Design A prospective case control repeated measures study was conducted over three clinical recovery milestones: Symptomatic (acute), Asymptomatic, and 1-week Post Return-to-Play (RTP).
Setting Single university athlete program monitored by the university’s sport medicine clinic, Ontario, Canada.
Participants Male and female varsity athletes (n=26; M=16, F=10) with medically diagnosed concussion and their matched controls (n=26; M=16, F=10).
Outcome measures Physiological: HRV and salivary cortisol; psychological: mood, perceived stress, sleep quality and symptoms.
Main results Univariate analyses identified a group by sex interaction for specific HRV measures (RR intervals p=0.0084, Low frequency Power p=0.0084, Mean Heart Rate p=.0049, and Low/High Frequency Ratio p=0.0084). Multivariate analyses of HRV identified main effects for sex and group, and a significant interaction with reduced HF HRV for female concussed athletes through to 1-week post RTP (FDR=.05). HRV suppression was related to mood disturbance in males (FDR.05). Psychological measures were significantly worse for concussed athletes relative to controls at the Symptomatic Phase, but significantly better at 1-week post RTP (paired Wilcoxon at FDR=.05).
Funding disclosure This study was supported by a grant from the Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) −2012-ABI-CAT1-971 to L. Mainwaring.
Conclusions For both males and females, mood disturbance, symptoms, and sleep quality perturbations were resolved by 1-week post RTP whereas autonomic nervous system disruption persisted beyond RTP in females. Psychophysiological non-invasive markers show promise for concussion monitoring.
Competing interests None.
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