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The ingestible telemetric body core temperature sensor: a review of validity and exercise applications
  1. Christopher Byrne (chris_byrne04{at}
  1. School of Life Sciences, Heriot Watt University, United Kingdom
    1. Chin Leong Lim (limcl{at}
    1. Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, Singapore


      An ingestible telemetric temperature-sensor for measuring body core temperature (Tc) was first described 45 years ago, although the method has only recently gained widespread use for exercise applications. This review aims to i) use Bland and Altman's limits of agreement method as a basis for quantitatively reviewing the agreement between intestinal sensor temperature (Tintestinal) and oesophageal temperature (Toesophageal) and rectal temperature (Trectal) across numerous previously published validation studies; ii) review factors that may affect agreement and; iii) review the application of this technology in field-based exercise studies. Our quantitative review suggests the agreement between Tintestinal and Toesophageal is within ± 0.5°C and is as good as, if not better than, the agreement between Toesophageal and Trectal. Intestinal sensor temperature responds less rapidly than Toesophageal at the start or cessation of exercise or to a change in exercise intensity, but more rapidly than Trectal. A number of factors are identified which may affect the validity and reliability of the ingestible sensor such as sensor calibration and data correction, timing of ingestion, and the susceptibility to electromagnetic interference. The ingestible sensor has been applied successfully in numerous sport and occupational applications such as the continuous measurement of Tc in deep sea saturation divers, distance runners, and soldiers undertaking sustained military training exercises. We conclude that the ingestible telemetric temperature sensor represents a valid index of Tc and demonstrates excellent utility for ambulatory field-based applications.

      • capsule
      • physical activity
      • pill
      • telemetry
      • temperature regulation

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