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Changes in muscle temperature induced by 434-MHz microwave hyperthermia
  1. Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine (noriko.sekine{at}
  1. Juntendo University, Japan
    1. Hisashi Naito (naitoh{at}
    1. Juntendo University, Japan
      1. Norio Saga (sg8_nr1gk0{at}
      1. Juntendo University, Japan
        1. Yuji Ogura (yuji_ogura{at}
        1. Juntendo University, Japan
          1. Minoru Shiraishi (shiisan.minoru{at}
          1. Jikei University School of Medicine, Japan
            1. Arrigo Giombini (agiombini{at}
            1. Sport Medicine Laboratory-IUSM, Italy
              1. Valentina Giovannini (v.giovannini{at}
              1. Restek Medical Dev., Italy
                1. Shizuo Katamoto (katamoto{at}
                1. Juntendo University, Japan


                  Objective: This study investigated the changes in temperature of human muscle during microwave hyperthermia.

                  Methods: Skin surface and muscle temperatures were measured in 11 healthy adult males (age 24.3±2.2 yrs; height 174.2±6.1 cm; weight 70.0±5.3 kg) during a 30 min exposure of the thigh to 434-MHz microwave hyperthermia. The skin temperature was maintained at the pilot temperature of 40°C, and the temperature of the water in the bolus was 38°C. The peak power output was set at 60 W and controlled automatically to maintain the pilot temperature. Muscle temperature was measured in the vastus lateralis muscle at an average muscle depth of 2.0±0.2 cm using a 23-G Teflon-shielded thermocouple. Biopsy specimens were obtained for light microscopy from three subjects. A muscle equivalent phantom was used to evaluate the vertical heating pattern.

                  Results: Both of the skin and muscle temperature increased from baseline, and the muscle temperature was higher than the skin temperature (skin 39.2±0.5°C; temperature rise: 5.0±1.5°C, muscle 43.7±0.8°C; temperature rise: 8.9±1.4°C). At the end of the hyperthermia treatment, the muscle temperature decreased to 39.8±0.9°C, but it was still 4.8±1.5°C higher than baseline. No signs of muscle damage were observed based on blood creatine kinase activity and histological sections.

                  Conclusions: Our results show that the 434-MHz microwave hyperthermia treatment increased and maintained the muscle temperature locally by 6.3–11.4°C without muscle damage. These findings suggest that the microwave hyperthermia system provides effective and safe treatment.

                  • hyperthermia
                  • microwave
                  • muscle temperature
                  • vastus lateralis muscle

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