Objectives: To determine a precise effect of plyometric training (PT) on vertical jump height in healthy individuals.
Methods: Meta analyses of randomized and nonrandomised control trails that evaluated the effect of PT on four typical vertical jump height tests: squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), countermovement jump with the arm swing (CMJA), and drop jump (DJ). Studies were identified by computerized and hand searches of the literature. Data on changes in jump height for the plyometric and control groups were extracted and statistically pooled in a meta-analysis for each jump type separately.
Results: A total of 26 studies yielding 13 data points for SJ, 19 data points for CMJ, 14 data points for CMJA, and 7 data points for DJ met the initial inclusion criteria. The pooled estimate of the effect of PT on vertical jump height was 4.7% (95% confidence interval 1.8-7.6%), 8.7% (95%CI: 7.0-10.4%), 7.5% (95%CI: 4.2- 10.8%), and 4.7% (95%CI: 0.8-8.6%), for the SJ, CMJ, CMJA, and DJ, respectively. When expressed in standardized units (i.e., effect sizes; ES), the effect of PT on vertical jump height was 0.44 (95%CI: 0.15- 0.72), 0.88 (95%CI: 0.64-1.11), 0.74 (95%CI: 0.47-1.02), and 0.62 (95%CI: 0.18-1.05), for the SJ, CMJ, CMJA, and DJ, respectively.
Conclusion: Plyometric training provides a statistically significant and practically relevant improvement in vertical jump height with the mean effect ranging from 4.7% (SJ and DJ), over 7.5% (CMJA) to 8.7% (CMJ). These results justify the application of PT for the purpose of development of vertical jump performance in healthy individuals.
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