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Differential Effects of Strength versus Power Training on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women - A two year longitudinal study
  1. Simon von Stengel (simon.von.stengel{at}imp.uni-erlangen.de)
  1. Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
    1. Wolfgang Kemmler (wolfgang.kemmler{at}imp.uni-erlangen.de)
    1. Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
      1. Dirk Lauber (dirk.lauber{at}baur.de)
      1. Institute of Sports Science, University of Erlangen, Germany
        1. Willi A Kalender (willi.kalender{at}imp.uni-erlangen.de)
        1. Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany
          1. Klaus Engelke (klaus.engelke{at}imp.uni-erlangen.de)
          1. Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen, Germany

            Abstract

            Objectives: To investigate the effect of two different schemes of loading in resistance training on bone mineral density (BMD) and pain in pre-trained postmenopausal women.

            Methods: 53 pretrained women (58.2 ± 3.7 yrs) who carried out a mixed resistance and gym-nastics program were group wise randomly assigned to a strength training (ST) or power training (PT) group. The difference between the two groups was the movement velocity during the resistance training (ST: 4s (concentric) – 4s (excentric); PT: explosive – 4s). Otherwise both groups carried out a periodized progressive resistance training (10-12 exer-cises, 2-4 sets, 4-12 repetitions at 70-92.5% of the one-repetition maximum (1RM, 2/week) for 24 months. The mechanical loading between the ST and PT groups we determined with a force measuring plate during the legpress exercise. At baseline and after two years bone min-eral density (BMD) was measured at different sites with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Pain was assessed by questionnaire.

            Results: Loading magnitude, loading/unloading rate, loading amplitude and loading fre-quency differed significantly in the two groups (p<0,001). After two years significant be-tween-group differences were detected for BMD (PT: -0.3% vs. ST: -2.4; p<0.05) and area (PT: 0.4% vs. ST: -0.9%; p<0.05) at the lumbar spine. At the hip there was a non-significant trend in favour of the PT group. Also the incidence of pain parameters at the lumbar spine was more favourable in the PT group.

            Conclusion: The results show that PT may be superior for maintaining BMD in postmeno-pausal women. Furthermore PT was safe as it did not lead to an increased rate of injuries and pain.

            • BMD
            • exercise
            • postmenopausal women
            • power training
            • strength training

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