We report the case of a 35-year-old male bodybuilder who was found to have a hepatocellular carcinoma arising in a pre-existing hepatic adenoma following recreational anabolic steroid use. Given the widespread use of recreational anabolic steroids we highlight another potentially life-threatening complication in addition to the more commonly recognised hepatic adenoma. To our knowledge, malignant transformation to HCC from a pre-existing hepatic adenoma confirmed by immuno-histochemical study has previously not been reported. We conclude by recommending further study to implement screening programs to identify high risk individuals.
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