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The female football player, disordered eating, menstrual function and bone health
  1. Jorunn Sundgot- Borgen (jorunn.sundgot-borgen{at}
  1. The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway
    1. Monica Klungland Torstveit (monica.torstveit{at}
    1. The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway


      Most female football players are healthy. However, recent findings from our studies on Norwegian female elite athletes show that also football-players are dieting, experiencing eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction and stress fractures. Dieting behavior and lack of knowledge related to energy needs of the athlete often leads to energy deficit, menstrual dysfunction and increased risk for loss of bone mass. Therefore, individuals, including the players themselves, coaches, administrators and family members, who are involved in competitive football, should be educated about the three interrelated components of The Female Athlete Triad (the Triad), and strategies should be developed to prevent, recognize and treat one or more of the Triad components.

      • bone mass
      • eating disorders
      • female soccer
      • reproduction

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