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Association Between Foot Type And Tibial Stress Injuries: A Systematic Review.
  1. Andrew Barnes (a.barnes{at}
  1. Sheffield hallam University, United Kingdom
    1. Jonathan Wheat (j.wheat{at}
    1. Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom
      1. Clare Milner (milner{at}
      1. University of Tennessee, United States


        Objectives: To systematically review published articles investigating the association between structural foot characteristics and tibial stress injuries. Furthermore, to suggest possible future avenues of research in this area. Methods: Literature was identified, selected and appraised in accordance with the methods of a systematic review. Articles potentially relevant to the research question were identified by searching the following electronic databases: Amed, Cinahl, Index to UK theses, Medline, Pubmed, Scopus, Sports discus, Web of science. Duplicates were removed, and based on the title and abstract, the full text of relevant studies retrieved. Papers were independently assessed by two reviewers; this formed the basis for the inclusion of the most appropriate trials. Results: From the 479 articles originally identified, nine were deemed appropriate for inclusion in the review. In general, specific data relating to this relationship was limited. Outcomes of the nine investigations were difficult to compare due to differing methods used across studies. Results have proved conflicting, with limited evidence found to implicate any specific foot type as a potential risk factors for tibial stress injuries. Conclusions: No definitive conclusions can be drawn relating foot structure or function to an increased risk of tibial stress injuries. Extremes of foot types are likely to pose an increased risk of tibial stress injuries compared to normal arched feet.

        • foot flexibility
        • foot pressure analysis
        • foot type classification
        • high arch
        • low arch

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