It is known that exercises increase the number of stem cells within the circulation. Until now it is not known which cellular processes are responsible for this increase. To answer this question, we analyzed the influence of blood sera provided by athletes onto human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Sera were taken before and after a short intensive exercise. As cellular parameters of MSCs proliferation, apoptosis and migratory activity were analyzed. After exercise we did not observed a change in stimulation of proliferation or apoptosis. In contrast, the migratory activity of MSC was significantly increased after exercises. To find potential factors that could be responsible for this effect, we also analyzed the semi-quantitative sera concentration of 120 cytokines. Of these factors BDNF, CTACK, EGF-R, GITR-Ligand, GRO-alpha, IL-1a, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, PARC and sTNF RII showed a significant increase whereas in case of MIF, a decrease in concentration after exercise was observed. IL-6 is known to stimulate migration in MSC. It is recognized that contracting skeletal muscle synthesize and release IL-6 into the systemic circulation in response to exercise. We therefore hypothesize that there is a direct relationship between exercise, IL-6 release and stem cell recruitment.
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