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Unique among unique. Is it genetically determined?
  1. Marta Gonzalez-Freire (martitainef{at}hotmail.com)
  1. Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain
    1. Catalina Santiago (catalina.santiago{at}uem.es)
    1. Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain
      1. Zoraida Verde (zoraida.verde{at}uem.es)
      1. Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain
        1. José I Lao (joseilao{at}sabiobbi.com)
        1. SabioBBi, S.L., Spain
          1. Jesus OIivan (jesus.olivan{at}uem.es)
          1. Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain
            1. Félix Gómez-Gallego (felix.gomez{at}uem.es)
            1. Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain
              1. Alejandro Lucia (alejandro.lucia{at}uem.es)
              1. Universidad Europea de Madrid, Spain

                Abstract

                The cross-country World championship is one of the best models to study characteristics needed to achieve top-level endurance athletic capacity. We report the genotype combination of a recent cross-country champion (12km race) in polymorphisms of seven genes that are candidates to influence endurance phenotype traits (ACTN3, ACE, PPARGC1A, AMPD1, CKMM, GDF8 (myostatin) and HFE). His data were compared with those of eight other runners (World class but not World champions). The only athlete with the theoretically more suited genotype for attaining World-class endurance running performance was the case study subject. A favourable genetic endowment, together with exceptional environmental factors (years of altitude living and training in this case) seems to be necessary to attain the highest possible level of running endurance performance.

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