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Medication Use by Athletes during the Athens 2004 Paralympic Games
  1. Christina Tsitsimpikou1,
  2. Athanasios Z Jamurtas1,*,
  3. Ken Fitch2,
  4. Peter Papalexis3,
  5. Konstantinos Tsarouhas1
  1. 1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Thessaly, Trikala, Greece;
  2. 2 School of Sports Science, Exercise and Health, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Western Austr, Greece;
  3. 3 Athens 2004 Organising Committee for the Olympic Games, Athens, Australia
  1. Correspondence to: Athanasios Z Jamurtas, Physical Education & Sport Sciences, University of Thessaly, Karies, Trikala, 42100, Greece; ajamurt{at}


Objective: To examine the use of food supplements and pharmaceutical preparations by elite Paralympic athletes.

Design: Survey study.

Setting: Athens 2004 Paralympic Games (APG).

Participants: Data obtained from two sources: athletes’ declaration of intake of medications/supplements recorded on the Doping Control Official Record during sample collection for doping control, and athletes’ application forms for granting of a therapeutic use exemption.

Main outcome measurements: Classification of declared food supplements according to the active ingredient and medications according to therapeutic actions and active compounds.

Results: 64.2% of the athletes tested for doping control declared use of medications or food supplements and 81.3% of these athletes declared intake of less than four preparations. Non-invasive routes of administration dominated. Food supplements (42.1%) were popular and medications used to treat several pathological conditions noted. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and analgesics were commonly used (9.8 and 5.6%, respectively). The prevalence of inhaled beta-2-agonist use at the APG (4.8%) was higher than anticipated and exceeded that at the Athens Olympic Games (AOG).

Conclusions: This review, the first to examine elite Paralympic athletes, demonstrates a more rational approach to the use of medication and food supplements, but a similar consumption pattern to AOG athletes. Because of the dearth of such studies, consumption trends among Paralympic athletes remain unclear. The need to counsel athletes with disabilities on their nutritional needs is confirmed and close monitoring by health care professionals is recommended.

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