The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistive load on performance and surface electromyogram (SEMG) activity during repeated cycling sprints (RCS) on a non-isokinetic cycle ergometer. Subjects performed two RCS tests (ten 10-s cycling sprints) interspersed with both 30-s and 360-s recovery periods under light load (RCSL) and heavy load conditions (RCSH) in a random counterbalanced order. Recovery periods of 360 s were set before the 5th and 9th sprints. In the 9th and 10th sprints, the values of peak power output divided by body mass (PPO•BM-1) were significantly higher in RCSH than in RCSL. Changes in blood lactate concentration were not different between the two conditions. In RCSL, root mean square (RMS) calculated from SEMG was significantly lower in the 9th sprint than in the 1st sprint, but there was no differences between RMS in the 1st sprint and that in the 9th sprint in RCSH. In conclusion, during RCS on a non-isokinetic cycle ergometer, performance and SEMG activity are influenced by resistive load. It is thought that regulation of skeletal muscle recruitment by the CNS is associated with fatigue during RCS with a light resistive load.