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Translation, Cross-Cultural Adaption and Validation of the German Version of the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure for Patients with Chronic Ankle Instability.
  1. Tanja Nauck*,
  2. Heinz Lohrer
  1. 1 Institute for Sports Medicine Frankfurt, Main e.V., Germany
  1. Correspondence to: Tanja Nauck, Orthopaedics, Institute for Sportsmedicine, Otto-Fleck-Schneise 10, Frankfurt, 60528, Germany; nauck{at}


Objectives: The Evaluation of health related quality of life and physical function is important for determining therapeutic strategies following ankle injuries. The anglo-american Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) is a valid and reliable self-reported measure to detect functional deficits in chronic lateral ankle instability. The purpose of this study was to translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the FAAM questionnaire for use in German-speaking patients with chronic lateral ankle instability.

Patients/Participants: Preoperative and conservatively treated patients with chronic lateral ankle instability: Sport students and volleyball athletes served as control groups.

Main outcome measurements: The FAAM was forward and back translated, cross-culturally adapted and validated. The study population completed the FAAM-G questionnaire twice within 3-5 days. Additionally, the patients were scored with the Good et al. ankle laxity classification system. Test-Retest reliability, construct validity and internal consistency were calculated.

Results: Reliability and validity of the FAAM-G were examined by presurgical chronic ankle instability patients (n=24), conservatively treated chronic ankle instability patients (n=17), university sport students (n=31) and volleyballers (n=37).

Test-retest reliability revealed fair, good, or excellent reliability (ICC = 0.590-0.998; rho = 0.528-1.000). Construct validity, tested between the FAAM-G and the Good ankle laxity classification system demonstrated strong correlations (rho = -0.819-0.861).

Conclusions: The original FAAM questionnaire was successfully translated and cross-culturally adapted from English to German. Corresponding to the anglo-american version, the FAAM-G is a reliable and valid questionnaire for self-reported assessment of pain and disability in German-speaking patients suffering from chronic ankle instability.

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