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Exercise, appetite and weight management: understanding the compensatory responses in eating behaviour and how they contribute to variability in exercise-induced weight loss
  1. N A King1,
  2. K Horner1,
  3. A P Hills1,
  4. N M Byrne1,
  5. R E Wood1,
  6. E Bryant2,
  7. P Caudwell3,
  8. G Finlayson3,
  9. C Gibbons3,
  10. M Hopkins4,
  11. C Martins5,
  12. J E Blundell3
  1. 1Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
  2. 2Centre for Psychology Studies, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK
  3. 3BioPsychology Group, Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
  4. 4Department of Sport, Health, Leisure and Nutrition, Leeds Trinity University College, Leeds, UK
  5. 5Obesity Research Group, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  1. Correspondence to N A King, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4059, Australia; n.king{at}qut.edu.au

Abstract

Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the efficacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesityis that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exercise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is <1.0 kg, significant improvements in aerobic capacity (+6.3 ml/kg/min), systolic (−6.00 mm Hg) and diastolic (−3.9 mm Hg) blood pressure, waist circumference (−3.7 cm) and positive mood still occur. However, people will vary in their responses to exercise; understanding and characterising this variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals.

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Footnotes

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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