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Rehabilitation of scapular dyskinesis: from the office worker to the elite overhead athlete
  1. Ann M J Cools1,
  2. Filip Struyf2,
  3. Kristof De Mey1,
  4. Annelies Maenhout1,
  5. Birgit Castelein1,
  6. Barbara Cagnie1
  1. 1Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  2. 2Division of Musculoskeletal Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, Artesis University College Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
  1. Correspondence to Dr Barbara Cagnie, Department of Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 3B3, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Barbara.cagnie{at}


The scapula functions as a bridge between the shoulder complex and the cervical spine and plays a very important role in providing both mobility and stability of the neck/shoulder region. The association between abnormal scapular positions and motions and glenohumeral joint pathology has been well established in the literature, whereas studies investigating the relationship between neck pain and scapular dysfunction have only recently begun to emerge. Although several authors have emphasised the relevance of restoring normal scapular kinematics through exercise and manual therapy techniques, overall scapular rehabilitation guidelines decent for both patients with shoulder pain as well as patients with neck problems are lacking. The purpose of this paper is to provide a science-based clinical reasoning algorithm with practical guidelines for the rehabilitation of scapular dyskinesis in patients with chronic complaints in the upper quadrant.

  • Shoulder injuries
  • Sports rehabilitation programs
  • Exercise rehabilitation

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