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2016 Patellofemoral pain consensus statement from the 4th International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat, Manchester. Part 1: Terminology, definitions, clinical examination, natural history, patellofemoral osteoarthritis and patient-reported outcome measures
  1. Kay M Crossley1,
  2. Joshua J Stefanik2,
  3. James Selfe3,
  4. Natalie J Collins4,
  5. Irene S Davis5,
  6. Christopher M Powers6,
  7. Jenny McConnell7,
  8. Bill Vicenzino4,
  9. David M Bazett-Jones8,
  10. Jean-Francois Esculier9,
  11. Dylan Morrissey10,11,
  12. Michael J Callaghan12,13
  1. 1La Trobe Sport and Exercise Medicine Research Centre, School of Allied Health, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2Department of Physical Therapy, Movement & Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
  3. 3Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Department of Health Professions. Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
  4. 4School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  5. 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding National Running Centre, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
  6. 6Division of Biokinesiology & Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA
  7. 7McConnell Physiotherapy Group, Mosman, New South Wales, Australia
  8. 8Department of Physical Therapy, Carroll University, Waukesha, Wisconsin, USA
  9. 9Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation and Social Integration Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec, Canada
  10. 10Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
  11. 11Physiotherapy Department, Bart's Health NHS Trust, London, UK
  12. 12Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, School of Health Professions. Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
  13. 13Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor Michael J Callaghan, Faculty of Health, Psychology and Social Care, School of Health Professions. Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK

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Introduction

Patellofemoral pain (PFP) typically presents as diffuse anterior knee pain, usually with activities such as squatting, running, stair ascent and descent. It is common in active individuals across the lifespan,1–4 and is a frequent cause for presentation at physiotherapy, general practice, orthopaedic and sports medicine clinics in particular.5 ,6 Its impact is profound, often reducing the ability of those with PFP to perform sporting, physical activity and work-related activities pain-free. Increasing evidence suggests that it is a recalcitrant condition, persisting for many years.7–9 In an attempt to share recent innovations, build on the first three successful biennial retreats and define the ‘state of the art’ for this common, impactful condition; the 4th International Patellofemoral Pain Research Retreat was convened.

The 4th International Patellofemoral Research Retreat was held in Manchester, UK, over 3 days (September 2–4th, 2015). After undergoing peer-review for scientific merit and relevance to the retreat, 67 abstracts were accepted for the retreat (50 podium presentations, and 17 short presentations). The podium and short presentations were grouped into five categories; (1) PFP, (2) factors that influence PFP (3) the trunk and lower extremity (4) interventions and (5) systematic analyses. Three keynote speakers were chosen for their scientific contribution in the area of PFP. Professor Andrew Amis spoke on the biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint. Professor David Felson spoke on patellofemoral arthritis,10 and Dr Michael Ratleff's keynote theme was PFP in the adolescent patient.11 As part of the retreat, we held structured, whole-group discussions in order to develop consensus relating to the work presented at the meeting as well as evidence gathered from the literature.

Consensus development process

In our past three International Patellofemoral Research Retreats, we developed a consensus statement addressing different presentation categories.12–14 In Manchester in 2015, we revised the format. For the exercise and …

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