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Towards a three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour: a narrative review
  1. Andreas Venhorst1,
  2. Dominic Micklewright2,
  3. Timothy D Noakes1
  1. 1Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Newlands, South Africa
  2. 2School of Sport, Rehabilitation and Exercise Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Andreas Venhorst, Division of ExerciseScience and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Newlands 7725, South Africa; andreas.venhorst{at}gmail.com

Abstract

The Central Governor Model (CGM) ignited a paradigm shift from concepts of catastrophic failure towards central regulation of exercise performance. However, the CGM has focused on the central integration of afferent feedback in homeostatic control. Accordingly, it neglected the important role of volitional self-regulatory control and the integration of affective components inherently attached to all physiological cues. Another limitation is the large reliance on the Gestalt phenomenon of perceived exertion. Thus, progress towards a comprehensive multidimensional model of perceived fatigability and exercise regulation is needed. Drawing on Gate Control Theory of pain, we propose a three-dimensional framework of centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour, which differentiates between sensory, affective and cognitive processes shaping the perceptual milieu during exercise. We propose that: (A) perceived mental strain and perceived physical strain are primary determinants of pacing behaviour reflecting sensory-discriminatory processes necessary to align planned behaviour with current physiological state, (B) core affect plays a primary and mediatory role in exercise and performance regulation, and its underlying two dimensions hedonicity and arousal reflect affective-motivational processes triggering approach and avoidance behaviour, and (C) the mindset-shift associated with an action crisis plays a primary role in volitional self-regulatory control reflecting cognitive-evaluative processes between further goal-pursuit and goal-disengagement. The proposed framework has the potential to enrich theory development in centrally regulated and goal-directed exercise behaviour by emphasising the multidimensional dynamic processes underpinning perceived fatigability and provides a practical outline for investigating the complex interplay between the psychophysiological determinants of pacing and performance during prolonged endurance exercise.

  • Central Governor Model
  • Dual Mode Theory
  • Mindset Theory
  • Self Regulation
  • Perceived Fatigability
  • Exercise Behaviour
  • Reafference Principle
  • Valence
  • Arousal
  • Core Affect
  • Motivation
  • Volition
  • Perceived Exertion
  • Pacing

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Footnotes

  • Contributors AV prepared the first draft and contributed to revision and final approval of the manuscript. DM and TDN contributed to revision and final approval of the manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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