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The famous proposal by Theodosius Dobzhansky that ‘Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution’ implies that ‘no meaningful picture as a whole’ is achievable if biology is seen out of this context.1 This is not to say that scientific advances are not possible without an evolutionary perspective, but rather that its consideration may illuminate previously ‘invisible’ interpretations. Due to evolutionary insights, significant progress has been made in several areas, particularly in the field of health and disease, and its respective applications in medicine and public health.
Similarly, by using an evolutionary perspective, researchers in the field of physical activity and related areas have put forward alternative and interesting avenues for research, with potential practical applications. For instance, some examples are: (1) physical activity behaviour, promotion and adherence2; (2) mode, duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity to optimise general health3; (3) the relationship between physical activity and neurobiology4; (4) new hypothesis for athletic training5; and (5) …