Table 1

Participant characteristics

All participants
(n=118)
Early reconstruction plus exercise therapy (n=59) Exercise therapy plus delayed reconstruction (n=30)Exercise therapy alone (n=29)
Demographics
 Sex, male (n (%))86 (73)47 (80)19 (63)20 (69)
 Age at baseline (mean (SD))26 (5)27 (5)25 (5)26 (5)
 Current or past smoker at baseline (n (%))30 (28)17 (32)5 (19)8 (31)
 Education, university level (n (%))44 (37)21 (36)13 (43)10 (35)
 Preinjury Tegner activity level 8 or 9 (n (%))79 (67)39 (66)22 (73)18 (62)
 Body mass index (mean (SD))24 (3)24 (3)23 (2)24 (3)
Prognostic factors
 Cartilage defect at baseline (n (%))31 (26)18 (31)5 (17)8 (28)
 Meniscus damage at baseline (n (%))30 (25)18 (31)5 (17)7 (24)
 Osteochondral lesion at baseline (n (%))77 (65)40 (68)22 (73)15 (52)
 Extension deficit at baseline (n (%))67 (57)30 (51)20 (67)17 (59)
 Graft rupture or contralateral ACL rupture (n (%))9 (8)7 (12)2 (7)0 (0)
 Non-ACL surgery occasions (n (%))
  None64 (54)37 (63)14 (47)13 (45)
  One38 (32)17 (29)12 (40)9 (31)
  Two or more16 (14)5 (9)4 (13)7 (24)
 SF-36 MCS at baseline (mean (SD))67 (19)68 (20)65 (20)66 (17)
 KOOS4 at baseline (mean (SD))37 (14)37 (16)36 (11)38 (13)
 Rehabilitation visits (mean (SD))59 (36)65 (36)70 (37)36 (23)
Five-year outcomes
 KOOS-pain (mean (SD))91 (12)91 (12)91 (13)92 (12)
 KOOS-symptoms (mean (SD))84 (16)82 (17)85 (14)89 (16)
 KOOS-sport/rec (mean (SD))77 (23)76 (23)78 (26)81 (22)
 KOOS-QOL (mean (SD))70 (22)71 (21)72 (24)66 (23)
  • Due to missing values, sample size was reduced for the following: smoking n=107, BMI n=116, SF-36 MCS n=117. Education: university degree versus all lower levels of education. Pre-injury Tegner activity level: levels 8 or 9 (higher-level pivoting, contact sport) as opposed to 5–7 (lower-level recreational sport and activities). Graft rupture or contralateral ACL rupture: 4 were ACL graft ruptures (2 received revision ACL reconstruction) and 5 were contralateral ACL ruptures (all received contralateral ACL reconstruction); non-ACL surgery: total number of knee surgery events not performed in the same surgical session as ACL reconstruction or revision.

  • ACLR, ACL reconstruction; KOOS4, a mean score from four Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales (pain, symptoms, sport/rec and QOL) KOOS and SF-36 scores range from 0 (worst) to 100 (best); MCS, Mental Component Score; QOL, quality of life; sport/rec, sport and recreation function; SF-36, 36-item Short-Form.