Table 1

Inclusion criteria

Selected studiesInclusion criteria
Study population
  • 18 years and older

Complaints of shoulder pain
(Based on Michener et al)5
  • Painful arc between 40° to 120° in abduction, flexion

  • Pain with active arm elevation

  • Test by Neer, Hawkins-Kennedy, Speed or Jobe

  • Empty can test

  • Resisted painful or weak shoulder abduction

  • Resisted or weak shoulder external rotation

  • Diagnosis based on criteria according to Cyriax (ie, painful arc, or painful resisted abduction test)

  • Impingement test with lidocaine

  • Tenderness to palpation of rotator cuff tendons

  • At least one conservative intervention was compared with any kind of interventions (including surgery)

Reported outcomes
  • Pain, function, active range of motion

Study design
  • Randomised controlled trials

Controlled follow-up period
  • Based on predefined criteria

Excluded studies
  • Case reports, treatments after surgery, did not meet our specified outcome parameters, traumatic incidents, written in Chinese and Farsi language