Table 6

A summary of prognostic factors for 5-year patient-reported outcomes

All participants (n=118)Early reconstruction plus exercise therapy (n=59)Exercise therapy plus delayed reconstruction (n=30)Exercise therapy alone (n=29)
Baseline meniscus damageWorse sport/recLess pain
Osteochondral lesionWorse QOL
Graft rupture/ contralateral ACL ruptureMore pain
Worse sport/rec
Worse QOL
More pain
Worse sport/rec
Worse QOL
1 non-ACL surgery*More pain
More symptoms
Worse sport/rec
More pain
More symptoms
Worse sport/rec
More pain
≥2 non-ACL surgeries*More symptoms
Worse QOL
More pain 
More symptoms 
Worse sport/rec 
Worse QOL
Worse SF-36 MCSMore pain
Worse baseline KOOS4 scoresMore symptoms
Worse sport/rec
Worse QOL
Exercise therapy alone†Less symptoms
  • *Compared with no non-ACL surgeries.

  • †Compared with the early reconstruction plus exercise therapy group.

  • Statistically significant effects (p<0.05) are presented for prognostic factors associated with 5-year outcome(s) assessed using adjusted multivariable analyses.

  • ‘Worse’ SF-36 MCS and KOOS4 scores represent lower scores on these measures which range from 100 (best possible score) to 0 (worse possible score).

  • Non-ACL surgery: total number of knee surgery events not performed in the same surgical session as ACL reconstruction or revision.

  • KOOS4, a mean score from four Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscales (pain, symptoms, sport/rec and QOL); MCS, Mental Component Score; QOL, quality of life; sport/rec, sport and recreation function; SF-36, 36-item Short-Form.