Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the patients according to study group

Characteristic Biceps tenodesis
(n=39)
Sham surgery
(n=39)
Labral repair
(n=40)
Age (years), median (range)40 (18 to 64)40 (23 to 60)42 (22 to 57)
Female sex, n (%)15 (38.5)17 (42.5)15 (37.5)
Body mass index†27.6 (5.6)26.1 (3.8)26.4 (4.3)
University education, n (%)18 (48.6)23 (59.0)22 (56.4)
Manual labour, n (%)‡19 (48.7)11 (28.2)17 (42.5)
Physical activity, n (%)§18 (47.2)21 (56.4)28 (70.0)
 No training22 (55.0)17 (42.5)12 (30.0)
 Frequent physical activity17 (42.5)17 (42.5)27 (67.5)
 Competitive 1 (2.5) 5 (12.5) 1 (2.5)
Taking analgesics daily or weekly, n (%) 7 (17.9) 5 (12.8) 6 (15.0)
Duration of pain, month median (IQR)24 (59)26 (61)24 (47)
Dominant shoulder involved, n (%)28 (71.8)33 (84.6)28 (70.0)
Positive O’Brien test, n (%)¶37 (94.9)33 (86.8)36 (90.0)
  • *Plus-minus values are means±SD.

  • †The body mass index is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres.

  • ‡Manual labour was reported if the patient was engaged in daily manual work.

  • §Physical activity was reported if the patient had no regular training, frequent if the patient was training two times or more in a week on a regular basis, and competitive if the patient was competing on a national level.

  • ¶The O’Brien test is positive if the patient has pain when resisting force from an examiner, with the arm in 90° of flexion, 20°adduction and supinated, and less pain with the arm otherwise in the same position but with pronation.