Table 1

Meta-analysis on the effects of walking interventions on biomedical indices of health

OutcomenEffect sizeHeterogeneity
SDM95% CIP*TI2 (%)P†
Body mass42−0.134−0.233 to −0.0340.0090.0000.0001.000
BMI29−0.142−0.257 to −0.0270.0150.0000.0000.999
Body fat29−0.216−0.336 to −0.096<0.0010.0000.0000.999
WC18−0.104−0.265 to 0.0580.2080.0000.0000.998
WHR13−0.165−0.340 to 0.0090.0630.0000.0000.668
SBP35−0.213−0.344 to −0.0820.0010.16417.9810.178
DBP33−0.166−0.285 to −0.0470.0060.0673.6500.408
TC38−0.123−0.242 to 0.0010.0520.15015.5470.205
HDL-C360.035−0.080 to 0.1500.5530.0000.0001.000
LDL-C350.030−0.089 to 0.1480.6240.0000.0000.630
TG35−0.084−0.201 to 0.0330.1610.0000.0000.876
FG17−0.211−0.401 to −0.0220.0290.18623.3430.183
VO2max 310.5280.391 to 0.664<0.0010.0000.0000.715
  • All estimates are from the meta-analysis using the random-effects model comparing an intervention group (walking) with a control group (no intervention).

  • BMI, body mass index (kg/m2);DBP, diastolic blood pressure (mmol/L); FG, fasting glucose (mmol/L); HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L); I2, heterogeneity (ratio of true heterogeneity to total observed variation); LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (mmol/L); n, number of comparisons, body mass (kg); SBP, systolic blood pressure (mmol/L); SDM, standardised difference in means; T, Tau (estimate of the SD in true effect sizes); TC, total cholesterol (mmol/L); TG, triglycerides (mmol/L); VO2max, maximal oxygen uptake; WC, waist circumference (cm); WHR, waist-to-hip ratio.

  • *P value for SDM (test of the null hypothesis that the effect is zero).

  • †P value (test of the null hypothesis that all studies in the analysis share a common effect size).