Table 5

 Exposure rates for concussion and significant neck injury from elbow–head (E-H) and hand/wrist/forearm–head (H/W/F) impacts

ConcussionSignificant neck injury (AIS 3+)
Linear accel.(g)Angular accel.(rad/s2)HIP(kW)Tension (N)Compression (N)Shear (N)Flexion (Nm)Extension (Nm)Lateral flexion (Nm)
accel., acceleration; AIS, abbreviated injury scale; HIP, Head impact power index.
Risk level (%)550955509555095555555
Reference value40781153350635092504.512.821.31097−11001100190−77143
E-H exposure rate (%)3.29002.5600000000000
H/W/F exposure rate (%)0.55000.1400000000000