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Metabolic effects of heavy physical training on female 'age-group' swimmers.
  1. P. S. Robinson,
  2. G. P. Caffrey,
  3. R. R. Ridinger,
  4. C. W. Steinmetz,
  5. R. L. Bartels,
  6. T. E. Shaffer


    Twelve female age-group swimmers and twelve female controls, aged ten to sixteen, performed a pre-training discontinuous maximal cycle ergometer test to determine the capacities of their anaerobic (alactacid and lactacid) and aerobic energy systems. Heart rate and oxygen uptake were determined during rest, exercise, and recovery. Blood samples were collected before and after exercise for determination of blood lactic acid concentrations. Tests were readministered to both groups immediately following the swimmers' competitive season. It was concluded that female swimmers possess significantly superior oxygen transport systems as compared to the untrained controls and that the high level of aerobic fitness is maintained throughout their training programme.

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