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Isokinetic performance and shoulder mobility in elite volleyball athletes from the United Kingdom
  1. Hsing-Kuo Wang1,
  2. Alison Macfarlane2,
  3. Tom Cochrane1
  1. 1Sheffield Institute of Sports Medicine and Exercise Science, University of Sheffield, United Kingdom
  2. 2Northern General Sports Clinic, The Northern General Hospital, Sheffield, United Kingdom
  1. Correspondence to: Professor T Cochrane, Sport, Health and Exercise, University of Staffordshire, Leek Road (Brindley Building), Stoke on Trent ST4 2DF, United Kingdom.


Objectives—To evaluate the differences in strength and mobility of shoulder rotator muscles in the dominant and non-dominant shoulders of elite volleyball players.

Methods—Isokinetic muscle strength tests were performed at speeds of 60 and 120°/s, and shoulder mobility was examined in ten players from the England national men's volleyball squad. The subjects also completed a questionnaire that included a visual prompt and analogue pain scale.

Results—The range of motion of internal rotation on the dominant side was less than that on the non-dominant side (p<0.01). The average peak strength at 60°/s external eccentric contraction was lower than that of internal concentric contraction in the dominant arm, but was higher in the non-dominant arm. Six of the ten subjects reported a shoulder problem, described as a diffuse pain located laterally on the dominant shoulder.

Conclusions—These elite volleyball players had a lower range of motion (internal rotation) and relative muscle imbalance in the dominant compared with the non-dominant shoulder.

  • volleyball
  • shoulder
  • rotator muscles
  • isokinetic testing
  • muscle imbalance

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