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Effect of ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) closed cell foam on transmitted forces in mouthguard material
  1. B Westerman1,
  2. P M Stringfellow2,
  3. J A Eccleston3,
  4. D J Harbrow4
  1. 1Private practitioner
  2. 2Engineer
  3. 3Department of Mathematics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia
  4. 4Department of Dentistry, University of Queensland
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr Westerman, 500 Sandgate Road, Clayfield 4011, Queensland, Australia;


Objectives: To compare transmitted forces through ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) mouthguard material and the same EVA material with gas inclusions in the form of a closed cell foam.

Method: EVA mouthguard materials with and without foam gas inclusions and 4 mm thick were impacted with a constant force from an impact pendulum. Various porosity levels in the foam materials were produced by 1%, 5%, and 10% by weight foaming agent. The forces transmitted through the EVA after energy absorption by the test materials were measured with a force sensor and compared.

Results: Only minor non-significant differences in transmitted forces through the EVA with and without foam were shown.

Conclusions: The inclusion of gas in the form of a closed cell foam in 4 mm thick EVA mouthguard materials did not improve the impact performance of the EVA mouthguard material.

  • mouthguard
  • closed cell foam
  • transmitted forces
  • ethylene vinyl acetate
  • EVA

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