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Intense training in elite female athletes: evidence of reduced growth and delayed maturation?
  1. S Bass1,
  2. R Daly1,
  3. D Caine2
  1. 1School of Health Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia; shonab{at}
  2. 2Department of Physical Education, Health and Recreation, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington, USA

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    In their recent article Intensive training in elite young female athletes, Baxter-Jones and Maffulli reviewed 18 studies and concluded “training does not appear to affect growth and maturation.”1 We have two concerns about this conclusion. Firstly, we agree that analyses of cross sectional and cohort data in this population are confounded by sampling bias; gymnasts who are successful at an elite level are likely to be self selected by their small stature and delayed maturation. Furthermore, data from cross sectional and cohort studies are often averaged. This “group” approach provides little information about individual growth patterns. Thus, in the review of Baxter-Jones and Maffulli, and the literature at large, an important basic question has been overlooked: is there any evidence that growth and/or maturation are adversely affected in some athletes and if so, what is the frequency of this condition?

    Secondly, in contrast with their findings, our analysis of over 35 clinical reports (cross sectional, historical, and prospective cohort studies) indicates that elite level gymnasts may be at risk of adverse effects on growth.2 We reported that the increased magnitude of the delay in skeletal maturation with training in adolescent female gymnasts, coupled with the occurrence of catch up growth during periods of reduced training or retirement, provides evidence that growth and maturation may be affected in some instances.2,3 Furthermore, in contrast with the interpretation made by Baxter-Jones and Maffulli of our data, we did report an association between reduced growth and years of gymnastic training, and that the deficits were greater at the axial than appendicular skeleton.3 We also reported that gymnasts who restricted energy intakes appeared to be at greatest risk.

    We agree with Baxter-Jones and Maffulli that a cause-effect relation between gymnastics training and inadequate growth of girls has not been shown; there have been no randomised controlled trials. However, this does not mean there is “no evidence for inadequate growth among female gymnasts.” If clinicians are coerced by group means and ignore variability about the mean, then gymnasts who are at increased risk of reduced growth may be overlooked. We recommend that the growth of all young elite female gymnasts should be monitored regularly. Any gymnast who falls behind in growth—that is, across two major centiles of the growth chart—should undergo a complete evaluation for underlying pathology, even when height is not below the fifth centile. This may be normal short stature, but the clinical criterion warrants assessment.


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