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Risk factors for lower extremity injury: a review of the literature
  1. D F Murphy1,
  2. D A J Connolly2,
  3. B D Beynnon1
  1. 1McClure Musculoskeletal Research Center, Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA
  2. 2Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Physical Education, University of Vermont
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr Beynnon, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, USA;


Prospective studies on risk factors for lower extremity injury are reviewed. Many intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors have been implicated; however, there is little agreement with respect to the findings. Future prospective studies are needed using sufficient sample sizes of males and females, including collection of exposure data, and using established methods for identifying and classifying injury severity to conclusively determine addtional risk factors for lower extremity injury.

  • extrinsic
  • injury
  • intrinsic
  • lower extremity
  • risk factor
  • IR, incidence rate
  • RR, relative risk
  • ACL, anterior cruciate ligament
  • OR, odds ratio
  • CI, confidence interval
  • ROM, range of motion
  • BMI, body mass index
  • NWI, notch width index

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