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Aerobic athletic performances are greatly improved by optimisation of mechanisms of oxygen transport and delivery to peripheral tissues and muscles. There are both lawful and banned methods to achieve better muscular oxygenation; of these, the administration of erythropoiesis stimulating molecules, namely human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEpo) or NESP, has been widely used by endurance athletes since the early 1990s.1 However, the introduction of a reliable laboratory test to detect blood doping with rHuEpo or derivatives has forced athletes to rely on alternative techniques, including blood …