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Gender identity and sport: is the playing field level?
  1. J C Reeser
  1. Correspondence to:
 Dr Reeser
 Marshfield Clinic, Department of Physical Medicine, 1000 North Oak Avenue, Marshfield, WI 54449, USA;


This review examines gender identity issues in competitive sports, focusing on the evolution of policies relating to female gender verification and transsexual participation in sport. The issues are complex and continue to challenge sport governing bodies, including the International Olympic Committee, as they strive to provide a safe environment in which female athletes may compete fairly and equitably.

  • FIVB, Federation Internationale de Volleyball
  • IAAF, International Association of Athletics Federations
  • IOC, International Olympic Committee
  • PCR, polymerase chain reaction
  • ethics
  • gender identity
  • sex determination
  • transsexualism

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  • Competing interests: none declared