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Can exercise improve self esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials
  1. E Ekeland1,
  2. F Heian2,
  3. K B Hagen3
  1. 1Norwegian Physiotherapist Association, Oslo, Norway
  2. 2BUA, FSM Molde, Norway
  3. 3NRRK, Oslo, Norway
  1. Correspondence to:
 E Ekeland
 Norwegian Physiotherapist Association, PO Box 2704, St Hanshaugen, Oslo 0131, Norway;


A systematic review to determine if exercise alone or as part of a comprehensive intervention can improve self esteem in children and young people is described.

Twenty three randomised controlled trials were analysed. A synthesis of several small, low quality trials indicates that exercise may have short term beneficial effects on self esteem in children and adolescents. However, high quality research on defined populations with adequate follow up is needed.

  • SMD, standardised mean difference
  • CI, confidence interval
  • children
  • exercise
  • self esteem
  • systematic review
  • meta-analysis

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  • Competing interests: none declared

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