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Craniomaxillofacial injury in sport: a review of prevention research
  1. P S Echlin1,
  2. R E G Upshur2,
  3. D M Peck1,
  4. E N Skopelja3
  1. 1Providence Hospital, Athletic Medicine, Farmington Hills, MI, USA
  2. 2University of Toronto, Toronto, Ottawa, Canada
  3. 3Indiana University Medical Library, Indianopolis, IN, USA
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr Echlin
    Providence Hospital, Athletic Medicine, 47601 Grand River Avenue, Suite 101, Farmington Hills, MI 48374, USA;


Current decision making in prevention of sport related craniomaxillofacial injury is based on available data derived from surveillance and attitude based studies. The literature on this type of injury prevention lacks the high quality scientific design and evidence on which mandatory interventions can be based. Currently available prevention methodology can provide a better understanding of injury mechanisms and produce valid interventions.

  • injury prevention
  • craniomaxillofacial injuries
  • facial injuries
  • face guards
  • mouth guards

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