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Live high-train low associated with increased haemoglobin mass as preparation for the 2003 World Championships in two native European world class runners
  1. J P Wehrlin1,
  2. B Marti1
  1. 1Swiss Federal Institute of Sports
  1. Correspondence to:
 J P Wehrlin
 Swiss Federal Institute of Sports, Hauptstrasse 247, 2532 Magglingen, Switzerland; jon.wehrlin{at}


Background: It is unclear whether world class endurance athletes, in contrast with less well trained subjects, increase their haemoglobin mass on a regimen of living high and training low (LHTL).

Objective: To assess whether haemoglobin mass increases in world class athletes on LHTL and whether this increase is associated with peak performance at a subsequent important competition.

Methods: Two Swiss world class runners (one 5000 m and one marathon) lived for 26 days (18 hours a day) at an altitude of 2456 m and trained at 1800 m. This LHTL camp was the preparation for the World Athletic Championships taking place 27–29 days after the end of the camp. Haemoglobin mass and other haematological variables were measured before and after the LHTL camp. The performance parameter was the race times during that period.

Results: Haemoglobin mass increased by 3.9% and 7.6%, and erythrocyte volume by 5.8% and 6.3%. The race times, as well as the ranking at the World Championships, indicated clearly improved performance after the LHTL camp.

Conclusions: The results suggest that LHTL with an adequate dose of hypoxia can increase haemoglobin mass even in world class athletes, which may translate into improved performance at important competitions at sea level.

  • EV, erythrocyte volume
  • Hbmass, haemoglobin mass
  • LHTL, live high-train low
  • PB, personal best
  • altitude training
  • hypoxia
  • elite athletes
  • erythrocyte volume
  • 5000 m
  • marathon

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  • Competing interests: none declared