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Therapeutic use exemption
  1. J Dvorak1,
  2. D Kirkendall2,
  3. M Vouillamoz3
  1. 1FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre, and Department of Neurology, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland
  2. 2FIFA Medical Research and Assessment Centre, and Department of Orthopaedics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
  3. 3UEFA Anti Doping Unit, Nyon, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to:
 Professor J Dvorak
 Chairman, FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre, Department of Neurology, Schulthess Clinic, Lengghalde 2, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland; jiri.dvorak{at}


Football players who have either physical symptoms or disease after injury may need to be treated with specific medicines that are on the list of prohibited substances. Therapeutic use exemption may be granted to such players, in accordance with strictly defined criteria—these are presented in this article. Procedures of how to request for an abbreviated or a standard therapeutic use exemption are explained, and data on therapeutic use exemptions (UEFA and FIFA, 2004 and 2005) are also presented.

  • TUE, therapeutic use exemption, WADA, World Anti-Doping Agency
  • WADC, World Anti-Doping Code
  • therapeutic use exemption
  • therapeutic use of prohibited substances
  • abbreviated therapeutic use exemption
  • standard therapeutic use exemption

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  • Competing interests: None declared